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Research Areas

Sl. no.
Programme and Areas
C
Propulsion
C 2.22 Supersonic film cooling of nozzle divergent
C 2.23 Annular spiked nozzle divergent for TSTO applications
C 2.24 Theoretical modeling of atomization in cryogenic injectors
Development of the primary atomization model to predict the droplet size as well as to have the secondary droplet formation, vaporization etc. for the complex gas-liquid flow existing in the cryogenic engine injectors of CE20 and CUS, where the engines are operating in supercritical conditions of the propellant. Some common approach could be of generation of spray model by full Lagrangian approach, or the phenomenological approach of the Ω-Y model or the hybrid approach using VOF-Lagrangian coupling. The model generated can be validated through experimental data in actual hardware.
C 2.25 Development of throttleable injector element for liquid engines
Throttleable injectors are necessary for missions requiring soft landing or stage recovery. Various types of swirl configurations as well as pintle type of injectors which will have control over the orifice opening area for flow control and thus control over thrust developed by engine are employed. This could find application in LOX-Methane engine design concept which requires soft landing type of operations for future space missions. Modeling and experimental characterization of the injectors for various operating conditions are areas to be studied.
C 2.26 Development of a theoretical model to determine the characteristic frequency of feed line coupled-oscillations in liquid rocket engine
C 2.27 Development of a hot gas Variable Flow Regulator for cryogenic engine
C 2.28 Ignition modeling & analysis of throat film cooling for Semi Cryogenic Thrust Chamber
C 2.29 Regenerative cooling analysis with kerosene for Semi cryogenic thrust chamber to study coking characteristics
C 2.30 Transient thermal modeling of Semi cryogenic engine
C 2.31 Development of foil bearings for high speed cryogenic turbopumps
C 2.32 Development of damper seals for turbopumps
C 2.33 Prediction model for vibration in Turbopumps considering the effects of unbalance, constraints, fluid forces, seals, internal clearances (housing/shaft/bearing) etc.
C 2.34 Mathematical modeling of liquid migration under Zero 'g' condition and the associated heat transfer with warm tank wall and pressurant gas is essential to predict the rate of pressure build up in LH2 tank
In cryogenic propulsion Stage residual liquid migration in LH2 tank is generally observed after engine shut down. This causes higher tank pressure due to mixing of liquid hydrogen with warm pressurant gas and heat transfer with warm tank wall.
C 2.35 Modelling of plasma and its dynamics inside hollow cathode in Electric Thruster
C 2.36 Development of diagnostic tools for measurement of plasma/plume parameters of stationary plasma thruster and pulsed plasma thruster
C 2.37 Prediction of life of hollow cathode and reduction in life due to poisoning
C 2.38 Non-contact type measurement of thruster anode liner erosion and prediction of thruster life
C 2.39 Electronics and Signal processing of Ultrasonics used for spacecraft propellant gauging used Ultrasonic Flow meter
C 2.40 The complete thermal modeling of the thruster
The monopropellant hydrazine thrusters are used in reaction control system of IRS projects. The monopropellant hydrazine thrusters use principle of dissociation of hydrazine using catalyst to produce the exhaust gases. These exhaust gases are expanded through the nozzle to produce thrust. The complete hydrazine dissociation model for the monopropellant thruster is required for thruster design and optimization. Based on the dissociation model, the complete thermal modeling of the thruster to be carried out.
C 2.41 Alternate green propellants
The monopropellant hydrazine is highly corrosive, carcinogenic and not environmental friendly. The alternate green propellants such as Ammonium Di Nitramide (AND), Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitride (HAN) based monopropellants are under studies. The green propellant formulation and its detail properties, dissociation phenomenon are essential to replace the existing hydrazine system. Development of suitable catalyst for the green propellant.
C 2.42 Flow modeling in Dual Bell Nozzle for Liquid Rocket Engines
C 2.43 Life cycle prediction of thrust chamber for reusable, regeneratively cooled liquid engines
C 2.44 Heat transfer characterization of kerosene with Aluminium Nano particles
C 2.45 Liquid film cooling study of thrust chamber with kerosene for LOX/Kerosene Semi-cryogenic Engine
C 2.46 Modelling and analysis of throat film cooling for semi cryogenic Engine Thrust Chamber
C 2.47 Multi plume interaction studies of Clustered Engines
C 2.48 Characterization of Heat transfer parameters in Gel Propellant Engines
C 2.49 Modeling of film cooling/sweat cooling in Liquid Rocket Engines
C 2.50 Combustion modelling & combustion instability modelling of liquid rocket Engines
Numerical steady state flow model can be carried out with the consideration of the various species for the Cryo/Semi-cryo thrust chamber and this can be perturbed to give unsteady results which give signatures of the dominant acoustic modes. The initial guess of the droplet size of the propellant will decide the vaporization, mixing and combustion in the chamber, therefore an experimental assessment of the droplet size will help in accurate predictions. Stability assessment can be done for ranges of droplet sizes and the stability boundaries can be defined. Design evaluation of the present Cryo/semi cryogenic engine with stability enhancing mechanisms can be taken up for studies.
C 2.51 Combustion studies on Gel Kerosene & Gel kerosene with Aluminium Nano particles
C 2.52 Numerical modeling of nonlinear thermo-acoustic instability in liquid rocket Engine
C 2.53 Optimization of passive suppression devices for thermo-acoustic instability in liquid rocket chamber
C 2.54 Two phase flow modeling in cryogenic propellant feed lines
C 2.55 Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis in Cryogenic Engine systems
C 2.56 Experimental evaluation and constitutive modeling to simulate structural behaviour and failure criteria for dissimilar weld joints
C 2.57 Spray interaction effects in a multi-element injector head of a liquid rocket engine
C 2.58 Studies on deflagration to detonation transition
C 2.60 Modeling of atomization of coaxial injectors, impinging jet injectors
Coaxial injectors are mainly selected for gas-liquid propellant combinations in both the Cryo and Semicryo engines. The impinging injector finds application in the earth storable engines where the injectors are operating in liquid-liquid mode.Flow modeling of atomization of coaxial or impinging jets and parameters affecting the atomization, mixing, vaporization of the propellant is to be studied. Theoretical studies with experimental correlation can be carried out.
C 2.61 Effect of acoustics on spray characteristics of swirl coaxial injectors
Combustion instability is characterized by large pressure perturbations with attendant large thermal stresses and is one of the most important challenges for liquid rocket engine design. Low and medium frequency combustion instability is believed to be caused by the dynamic processes in supply system or combustion. Dynamic processes with specific reference to atomization are to be studied & modeled as it plays important role.
C 2.63 Finite element simulation of non-linear, high strain forming processes of metals like deep drawing, flaring etc.
C 2.64 Transient chill down analysis of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers
C 2.65 Film cooling breakage studies under unstable combustion conditions (Boundary Layer breakage) Film cooling breakage studies under unstable combustion conditions (Boundary Layer breakage)
C 2.66 Evaluation of damage criteria for AA2219 welds under bi-axial stress field from experiments and simulation
C 2.67 Modelling of plasma and its interaction in vacuum chamber during electric thruster firing
C 2.68 Prediction of anode liner erosion of Hall Effect thruster
C 2.69 Modelling of plasma flow in Hall effect Thrusters
C 2.70 Design of packaging/interfaces for MEMS based fabricated valves & actuators
C 2.71 Development of a mathematical model for characterizing the dynamic behaviour of a check valve under different operating conditions
C 2.72 Design & Development of solenoid coils for Liquid Helium applications
C 2.73 Development of a mathematical model for estimation of crimping loads for different material and design configurations
C 2.74 Theoretical Investigation of pressure waves generated by heat addition in a gaseous medium
C 2.75 Estimation of torque co-efficient and load distribution in threaded joints
C 2.76 Development of a mathematical model for propellant tank pressurization system chain for cryogenic application
C 2.77 Micro machining of metals to provide low mass flow rates (>0.1 SCM) of Xenon gas for EPS application.
C 2.78 Modelling of Magneto Plasma Dynamic Thruster
C 2.80 Ignition modelling of Semi Cryo Engine & Comparison of performance with slug igniter & Electrical igniter for LOX Kerosene combustion.
In future, multi start semi cryo engine are required for space transportation missions. Slug igniter is a fuel which is hypergolic with LOX whereas electrical igniter is another heating device to generate adequate heat energy to ignite LOX with Kerosene. Modeling of igniter aspects, performance prediction, improvements etc. are some of the areas of research.
C 2.81 Modelling of two phase flow heat transfer of Liquid Methane in regenerative cooling channels of LOX/Methane rocket engines with Methane film cooling.
In future LOX/Methane engines are essentially needed for Mars missions where in fuel refilling is possible. A good thermal model for two phase flow will be of much application for design of LOX/Methane engines.
C 2.82 Study, design & optimization of clearance seals used in high speed turbo machinery operating in cryogenic fluids and vacuum conditions.
Clearance seals are used in Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen during chilling phase and in vacuum conditions during operation of turbo pumps. The vibration, friction and wear characteristics of the seal/runner combination plays a vital role in the turbopump performance. Detailed study in this area is required to optimize the existing seal designs/configurations.
C 2.83 Control of combustion instability in liquid engines.
Combustion instability is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in liquid engines and can lead to damage/destruction of the hardware. It can be controlled by passive techniques such as slots, baffles and resonators. To widen the range of operating conditions under which control is effective, active control techniques such as anti-sound and secondary fuel injection can also be used. It is necessary to characterize the performance and stability of passive/active control techniques to evaluate suitability for liquid engines.
E
Aerospace Materials, Composites & Mechanical Systems
E 1.3 Material behaviour at hot Hydrogen environment
E 1.4 Fracture behaviour studies of rocket engine materials for cryogenic application
E 1.5 Characterization and development of new thermionic material for hollow cathode of electric thruster which cannot easily get poisoned
E 2.2 Physical property measurement at low temperature up to 20K
E 5.7 Development of materials/alloys including coatings for high pressure Oxygen environment
E 5.8 Development and characterization of Oxygen, moisture and Nitrogen absorber (non-heating type) for flight use
E 5.9 Development of thermal barrier coating with Nano materials
E 5.10 Laser ultrasonic for online EBW evaluation of Ti alloys
E 6.4 Metallurgical studies on Copper-Nickel dissimilar metals EB weld interface
E 6.5 Development of Vacuum Brazing Technique for joining carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (C-SiC) to Columbium and C-SiC to Titanium
E 6.6 Theoretical & Experimental evaluation of 3D weld porosity effects on integrity of welded structures (pressure vessels & thrust chambers)
E 7.4 Development of ceramic coating to prevent metal burning in high temperature and oxygen rich environment
E 7.5 Development of new thermal barrier coating to reduce heat flux in Semi Cryogenic Engine Thrust Chamber
E 7.6 Development of coating materials used in high temperature environment
E 8.4 Corrosion behaviour at atmospheric conditions of materials used in rocket engine
E 8.5 Characterization of SS 321 at low temperatures
Study of phase transition relating to Strain rate & temperature
F
Transducers and Sensors
F 1 Fiber optic sensors
Fiber optic technology based sensors need to be developed for sensing of pressure, temperature, level, flow rate etc. for the propulsion systems of launch vehicle. Distributed sensing of strain and temperature over structures using Fiber bragg gratings (FBGs) need to be realized. Cost effective interrogator units are required to be developed with lesser weight. Multiplexing of sensors using fiber technology is another area of importance.
F 2 O2 & CO2 gas sensors and development of graphene based sensors
Graphene is one of the potential materials which can be used for sensing applications. There is a need for measuring different gases like O2, CO2 etc. for human space flight where the environment of the crew module has to be carefully monitored and controlled. Development of gas sensors based on graphene need to be explored for this purpose as they have lesser weight, faster response, low power consumption etc.
F 3 Development of nano-technology based pressure & strain sensors
Various nano material and nano structures like ZnO, MoS2, Carbon Nano Tube (CNT), graphene etc. can be used for strain/pressure sensing. Selection of suitable substrate, nano material/structure synthesis, characterization etc. are envisaged. Sensors based on nano technology is to be developed for measuring pressure of propellant and gases in the range 1 bar to 1000 bar.
F 4 Development of nano-technology based gas sensor (both presence & % quantity
Gas sensors need to be employed in various facilities and space systems to monitor either presence or leak of gases. Monitoring of gases like H2, CO, CO2, NO2, O2 etc. (both presence and quantity) is mandatory in various space systems. Development of Nanostructures of various metal oxides for gas sensing need to be attempted. Feasibility of an array of multiple element gas sensors on a single substrate using nano fabrication technique may be attempted.
G
Structures and Fabrication
G 1 Experimental evaluation of damping in fluid conveying pipelines immersed in fluid environment (both theoretical empirical relation &experiments)
G 2 Crack growth studies in propellant tanks through experiments & theoretical modeling
G 3 Electrical Discharge machining/Die Sinking (EDM)
Optimization of machining parameters for machining for following super alloys: Titanium Ti6AI4V, Inconel 600/718, Hynes-25, Molybdenum, Columbium 103